Teste de campo

PV Modules

Uma comparação no mundo real dos módulos de PV Mono, Poly, PERC e Dual.

Realtime data
-- -- Hora local
Installation date: 09-03-2020
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Irradiância
Roménia
44°17'59.9"N
26°11'29.7"E

Mono

2500Wp --
Total solar yield: --

Split-cell

2500Wp --
Total solar yield: --

Poly

2500Wp --
Total solar yield: --

PERC

2500Wp --
Total solar yield: --

* Isto é umteste de campo e os resultados são específicos da instalação neste local,Certifique-se de que esta é a melhor solução para a sua situação particular, pois os resultados podem variar segundo as influências ambientais.

Iate à vela

Navegue em conforto

As lanchas a motor são obras-primas da engenharia. Oferecem o conforto de uma casa no espaço compacto de um iate. Para onde quer que vá, vai querer aproveitar ao máximo este luxo que conquistou arduamente. A Victron proporciona uma rede elétrica inteligente que se adapta a quaisquer desafios que tenha de enfrentar. Para que possa descansar numa espreguiçadeira do convéns.

De quanto energia precisa para a sua viagem?

Quer leve a família num passeio entre ilhas durante o fim de semana, quer lance a âncora numa bela baía durante uma semana, são as suas férias e você faz aquilo que quiser. Deste modo, a solução de energia ótima que vai variar consoante o iate e o proprietário. Com a Victron, você pode concretizar praticamente todos os planos, mas, como exemplo, ilustrámos perfis de energia “normais” e “intensos” para lanchas a motor “médias”.

Vamos ver o Plano de Energia Ótima com o qual tudo funciona.

Consumo

Precisa de mais?

Uma lancha a motor não está completa sem bastante equipamento elétrico. A maior parte dos dispositivos usados para controlar a embarcação usam CC, mas os aparelhos de maiores dimensões (eletrodomésticos) precisam de CA. Qual será a potência total? Não olhe apenas para os watts. Um micro-ondas pode usar 1000 W, mas apenas durante 4 min. Um combinado frigorífico/congelador pode consumir apenas 100 W, mas está ligado 24 horas por dia.

Para efeitos ilustrativos, descrevemos dois exemplos de sistema com base numa utilização “normal” e “intensa”.

2,4 - 4,8 kWh / dia

Perfis de consumo energético “Normal” e “Intenso”. Ler mais

Ler mais

Exemplo 1

O micro-ondas utiliza 1000 W por hora, mas apenas durante 4 min.
1000 W / 60 x 4 = 0,67 kWh / dia

Exemplo 2

O combinado frigorifíco/congelador utiliza 84 W por hora, mas é funciona durante todo o dia (normalmente arrefecimento ½ por dia).
84 W x 24 h/2 = 1 kWh / dia

Armazenagem e conversão

Quanta energia deve ser armazenada?

Uma lancha a motor precisa de uma armazenagem de energia adequada e de uma conversão potente para 230 V. Carregar o banco de baterias a partir dos motores significa que não precisa de ligar o gerador ruidoso quando estiver ancorado durante a noite no mar. Como pode não navegar durante alguns dias, a sua bateria de serviço deve ter uma capacidade generosa. Como regra geral, calculamos a armazenagem de energia com 48 h a bordo sem energia solar/gerador/motor/cais.

x 2

A capacidade de armazenagem de uma bateria de lítio deve ser o dobro do consumo energético diário.

x 4

Devido à sua descarga ± 50 % menor, a capacidade de armazenagem de uma bateria de chumbo-ácido deve ser o quádruplo do consumo energético diário.

Conversão

Os inversores devem ser dimensionados para controlar continuamente a carga média e devem igualar a corrente do pico de potência previsto das cargas, algo que os nossos inversores fazem muito bem (em média, duas vezes a corrente contínua).

Geração

De onde vem a energia?

Toda a energia deve ser gerada de algum modo. A Victron permite-lhe combinar múltiplas fontes num fluxo de energia estável. Na marina, vai ligar-se à rede elétrica do cais. No mar pode usar um alternador (adicional) nos motores do barco. Ou então ligar um gerador se estiver ancorado distante da costa. Por fim, pode instalar painéis solares na coberta para obter uma energia grátis e ecológica.

Fontes de energia.

Inversor/carregador
33A - 40A(Ou superior, dependendo da capacidade da bateria)
Alternador
2x 50A - 80A(Dependendo do motor)
Solar
640W+

Power profile

Perfis de energia Normal e Intenso em kWh, com base no consumo energético diário, que deve estar em equilíbrio com a geração.

As baterias de armazenagem em Ah duplicam a capacidade com os produtos de chumbo-ácido.

Aparentemente o seu navegador não é compatível com a tecnologia mais recente para visualizar esta secção adequadamente. Considere a utilização de um navegador mais recente.

Sistema completo

Um olhar mais atento

De que forma um perfil de energia se traduz num sistema? Aqui tem a nossa recomendação para uma lancha a motor média.

Bateria de serviço:

AC-devices

Everything you would expect in a home can also be found on a motor cruiser. All these devices need AC to run. Think of:

  • Entertainment suite
  • Television(s)
  • Laptop(s)
  • Phone chargers
  • Fridge and freezer
  • Coffeemaker
  • Breadmaker
  • Dishwasher
  • Microwave
  • Mixer
  • Wine cooler
  • Washing machine

BatteryCombiner

The Cyrix BatteryCombiner is the only safe way to connect the house battery to the starter battery (to start your boat’s engines). With a BatteryCombiner you can charge the house battery from the alternator without running the risk of draining the starter battery (which always should be ready to go). When other sources of power are available (eg. shore/solar/generator power), the Cyrix BatteryCombiner will allow bi-directional charging from the house battery to the starter battery.

When the Voltages of the starter and house batteries are the same, use a Cyrix: its current rating should be equal or bigger than the current rating of the alternator.

If the house battery is Lithium and the alternators Amperage is smaller than the house battery, or when the Voltages of the starter and house battery are different: use a DC-DC converter or Buck-Boost.

BatteryProtect

Discharging your battery too far will damage it. Adding a Victron BatteryProtect will disconnect the boat’s electronics when the battery voltage drops below a pre-set level. It will also automatically reconnect everything when the battery is sufficiently recharged.

There is more to a Victron BatteryProtect. The built-in shutdown delay ensures that vital electronics aren’t disconnected in error, i.e. when starting the engine causes a short drop in battery voltage.

Battery Monitor

A battery monitor is like a "fuel gauge" for your battery. It records how much power is consumed and charged. The battery monitor calculates the state of charge, remaining capacity and time till empty. The battery voltage does not give an accurate indication of how full the battery is. A battery monitor does.

Victron battery monitors keep track of historical data, like the number of charging cycles, deepest discharge, highest voltage, lowest voltage and so on. It will alert you to critical conditions such as low voltage or low charge. The smart monitor can even shut down the entire power supply to avoid expensive battery damage.

Choosing a BMV:

  • Choose a BMV 700 battery monitor if you want to monitor the house battery and don’t need a Bluetooth connection.
  • Choose a BMV 702 battery monitor if you want to monitor both the house battery and the starter battery, and you don’t need a Bluetooth connection.
  • Choose a BMV 712 battery monitor if you want to monitor both the house battery and the starter battery via Bluetooth on a smartphone or tablet.

Boat Network

Keeping grips on all the systems on board can be a hassle. The solution: tie everything together in a single boat network using NMEA communication standards. Your boat network can include navigation equipment, tank senders, battery monitoring and much more. The status information can trigger alarms and shutdowns, adding to the safety on board. The Cerbo GX now supports the NMEA2000 out protocol, allowing you to monitor your boat’s network of systems from wherever you are.

Boat engines

Motor cruisers have one or two diesel engines to get from harbour to horizon. The engines are designed to run continuously, for days on end. They also come with high-output alternators to charge the engine batteries, drive fuel pumps, etc.

Once the starter batteries are recharged, the engines can also power the boat electrics and recharge the house battery. On motor cruiser you’ll find power hungry DC equipment such as anchor windlasses and bow thrusters. The engines have to be running before you can use them.

Boat Electronics

A motor cruiser is packed with dozens of electrical devices. These are all connected to the house battery. Think of:

  • Boat control panel
  • Log/depth sounder
  • Chart-plotter
  • Navigation / GPS
  • Navtex
  • Auto pilot
  • All-band Radio
  • Satellite comms
  • Maritime traffic identification systems
  • Navigation lights
  • Pumps
  • Windlass
  • Bow thruster
  • Fridge and freezer
  • Air conditioning
  • Blowers
  • Interior lighting
  • Music player

Buck-Boost

The Buck-Boost converter is used in dual battery systems, where the (smart) alternator and the start battery are used to charge the service battery (of equal or different voltages). The Buck-boost can be used in 12V or 24V systems and is suitable for both lead acid and lithium batteries.

Charging lithium batteries from the alternator

Alternators cannot be connected directly to most lithium batteries. A lithium battery will draw more current than the alternator can supply, which may result in alternator damage. A Buck-Boost DC/DC converter solves this problem: it acts as a current limiter between the alternator and the battery.

How to select a Buck-Boost? The current rating of the DC/DC converter has to be less than the alternator’s current rating. For example: pair a 50 Amps converter with a 60 Amps alternator. In the software the ideal throughput can be defined.

When the charging capacity exceeds the limits of the Buck-Boost, consider working with DC-DC generator(s) sized to the capacity of the battery bank.

Cerbo GX

The Victron Cerbo GX is the communication-centre of your boat’s installation, allowing you to always have perfect control from wherever you are and maximises its performance. Simply connect through our Victron Remote Management (VRM) portal, or access directly, using the optional GX Touch 50 screen, a Multi Functional Display or our VictronConnect app thanks to its added Bluetooth capability.

The Victron Cerbo GX is an easy to use visual system. Instantly monitor the battery state of charge, power consumption, power harvest from PV, generator, and mains, or check tank levels and temperature measurements. Easily control the shore power input current limit, (auto)start/stop generator(s) or even set quiet periods to avoid starting the generator in the middle of the night. Change any setting to optimise the system, follow up on alerts, perform diagnostic checks and resolve challenges remotely. The Cerbo GX turns any power challenge into an effortless experience.

Galvanic Isolator

A galvanic isolator prevents electrolytic corrosion. The isolator is mounted directly behind the shore power connector on board. It blocks DC currents that might leak through the shore power earth terminal. These currents can cause corrosion to all metal parts under water, like the hull, propeller, shaft, etc. The galvanic isolator should have the same power rating as the incoming shore power.

It’s a misunderstanding that galvanic corrosion occurs only in metal and aluminium hulls. In fact it can occur on any boat as soon as a metallic part (the shaft and propeller) is in contact with water. Galvanic corrosion will quickly dissolve your sacrificial anodes, and attack the shaft, propeller and other metal parts in contact with water as soon as the boat is connected to the shore-side supply. It might therefore be tempting not to connect the ground conductor: this is however extremely dangerous because Ground Fault Current Interrupters will not work nor will a fuse blow in case of a short circuit to a metal part on the boat.

The safe option is to use a Galvanic Isolator for non-metal smaller boats, or use an isolation transformer for metal boats or boats with bigger systems.

Generator

The generator provides energy when shore power is not available and the boat’s engines aren’t running (or can’t supply enough power to meet the demand). The generator is usually supplemented with a inverter/charger and a battery bank. The batteries act as a back-up and allow for quiet periods at night.

Thanks to Victron’s PowerAssist, the generator doesn’t have to be sized for the maximum load. You can use a smaller generator which is cheaper to install, uses less fuel and produces less noise. The inverter automatically bridges the potential gap between supply and demand with support of the battery bank.

GX GSM Dongle

The Victron GX GSM is a 3G cellular modem that enables GX devices with mobile internet for the system and connection to the VRM Portal, allowing you to monitor your system from remote. When the boat is in range of a 3G network, it will send data to the VRM website and you can monitor the boat from your smartphone. The GSM module adds tracking the boat, recording your trips and putting up a geo-fence around the boat. You will get an alert via mail when the boat travels outside the geo-fence area.

House battery

The house battery stores power for the boat’s electrical system. Motor cruisers typically have large power demands and the house battery should have a generous capacity.

For a house battery you can choose from two types: lead-acid and lithium. There are various reasons to favour one over the other. Here are a few common ones:

  • Choose Lead-Acid when:
  • Use occasionally
  • Lower purchase cost
  • Weight and space are not an issue
  • Normal charging
  • Choose Lithium when:
  • Use daily
  • Lower cost per cycle
  • Weight and space considerations
  • Fast charging

House battery

The house battery stores power for the boat’s electrical system. Motor cruisers typically have large power demands and the house battery should have a generous capacity.

For a house battery you can choose from two types: lead-acid and lithium. There are various reasons to favour one over the other. Here are a few common ones:

  • Choose Lead-Acid when:
  • Use occasionally
  • Lower purchase cost
  • Weight and space are not an issue
  • Normal charging
  • Choose Lithium when:
  • Use daily
  • Lower cost per cycle
  • Weight and space considerations
  • Fast charging

Inverter/Charger

On motor cruisers you’ll need an intelligent inverter/charger that automatically switches between various sources to cater for all power needs.

In the marina shore power will be used to feed the boat’s AC grid and charge the batteries. When no shore power is available, the batteries will power both the DC and the AC grid. Power can be drawn from the boat’s engines while sailing. If the power demand gets too high or the batteries get low, the generator will kick in to power the load and charge the batteries.

  • Victron inverter/chargers come with a handful of outstanding features:
  • PowerControl: automatically manage battery charging to prevent an overload of the generator or shore power.
  • PowerAssist: uses the battery as a buffer to assist the shore power during peak power demand.
  • Perfect power: even sensitive devices run flawlessly on the pure sine wave power.
  • High peak-power: use motorised equipment without overheating.
  • Low self consumption.

Thanks to PowerAssist, the generator doesn’t have to be sized for the maximum load. You can use a smaller generator which is cheaper to install, uses less fuel and produces less noise.

If you don’t have a generator on board, a Multiplus is all you need. With a generator on board a Quattro is the better choice.

We strongly recommend 24 Volts for new boats. The higher voltage is simply a better choice when it comes to meeting the power demands of a motor cruiser. If your boat’s system is based on 12 Volts, select a 12 Volts unit instead. If you have dissimilar battery banks, consider charging them using a DC-DC converter, or have it power several dissimilar appliances with a different voltage than the house battery.

Generally speaking, a 3 kVA unit will be big enough, unless the power consumption is higher than average. For example: when you have an air conditioner on board. If this is the case, choose a 5 kVA unit.

MFD GX Integration

The Marine MFD GX integration enables you to easily connect a Multi Functional Display (MFD) to the heart of your power system such as the Cerbo GX, or the GX enabled Multiplus-II GX. Once connected you can easily monitor and control your boat’s power system, right on your Glass Bridge. Now available on the industry’s best MFDs, such as Raymarine, Garmin, Simrad, B&G and Lowrance.

Shore Power

Usually shore power is available in the marina; it is used to run large AC equipment on board and recharge the batteries. Larger boats need a three phase supply. Sometimes shore power can’t provide enough power to cater for the total AC load of the boat. It might also just be single phase.

Often shore power is limited in how much power you can draw, i.e. just 10 Amps. Berths with higher ratings might not always be available. Victron inverter/chargers allow you set a maximum shore power current. Now you can charge your batteries and turn on any equipment without blowing a fuse. Thanks to Victron’s PowerAssist, the generator and batteries can automatically bridge the gap between supply and demand.

Sometimes shore power is less than perfect. You might run into voltage drops if you’re at the far end of the harbour. There could also be power surges, which could harm sensitive equipment on board. Victron’s inverter/chargers smooth out these problems and turn bad power into perfect power.

Solar charger

Solar panels won’t be able to cover all the power needed, but they can reduce the running time of the generator and fuel costs.

A solar charger - also called MPPT controller, harvests the power from the solar panels to charge the house battery. Solar chargers have the same charging cycles as our regular, fully automatic, battery chargers. When your boat is moored without shore spower, solar power is a great way to keep the batteries charged.

In a marine environment, the performance of solar panels changes constantly. Victron’s solar controllers use ultra fast maximum power point tracking to squeeze up to 30% more power out of your panels.

See our Solar Calculator to size the solar panels and select a MPPT charger

Solar panels

Solar panels won’t be able to cover all the power needed, but they can reduce the running time of the generator and fuel costs. Victron offers a wide range of highly efficient solar panels that are just perfect for marine use.

Starter Battery

The starter battery is needed to start your boat’s engines. These batteries are different from house batteries and engineered to deal with a large discharge current. The starter batteries should be ready to go. Always use a BatteryCombiner to connect the starter batteries to the rest of the electrical system; it prevents an accidental drain of power.

GX Touch

The GX Touch 50 display allows you to have an instant overview of your system and adjust settings in the blink of an eye. Simply connected to the Cerbo GX with one cable, its super slim 5 inch waterproof design and its top-mountable setup bring a lot of flexibility when creating a crisp and clean dashboard.

VE.Bus BMS

The VE.Bus BMS is a dedicated battery management system (BMS) that protects lithium batteries against deep discharges, overcharging and high temperatures. When critical values are exceeded, the BMS acts immediately and will have the 230V loads disconnected by the inverter and the 12V/24V loads by the BatteryProtect in case of a deep discharge. Charging is stopped when there is a risk of overcharging. High temperatures trigger an immediate end to both charging and discharging.

The VE.Bus BMS can be used in 24, 24 and 48 Volt systems. The BMS does not physically disconnect the like other BMS do, but sends a signal that will turn the load or charge off. The VE.Bus BMS should always be paired with a BatteryProtect. There is no limit on the size of the connected inverter. The VE.Bus BMS comes standard with a mains detector, so the BMS is able to control the rest of the system when these parameters change: for instance, stopping the charging process of the inverter/charger when shore power is unplugged.

VictronConnect

All Victron products on your boat can be monitored and controlled from the palm of your hand. Just connect the VictronConnect App via Bluetooth and you’ll have direct access to values like battery voltage and current. You can also turn devices on or off, as well as change their settings.

See what the VictronConnect app can do
Exemplos de sistema

O consumo de energia vai variar consoante o iate e o proprietário. O Plano de Energia Ótima deve ser sempre concebido com as lanchas específicas em mente. No entanto, para começar, aqui tem dois exemplos, com um consumo de energia diário normal e intenso, de Energia Ótima para uma lancha a motor.

Não se esqueça dos muitos fatores a considerar para desenhar e instalar a sua solução ótima: o seu Profissional Victron terá todo o gosto em ajudar.

Para visualizar adequadamente esta tabela detalhada e a secção completa, considere a utilização de um navegador mais recente.

Normal
Intenso
Lancha a motor de 33 ft a 46 ft
Quatro pessoas
A mesma embarcação, mas usada de forma intensa: mais tempo em alto mar, mais conforto, equipamento e pessoas a bordo.
Consumo
Consumo de energia diário
2,4 kWh
4,8 kWh
Energia total Baterias e gerador
± 8 kVA
± 10 kVA
Pico de potência Baterias e gerador
± 16 kVA
± 20 kVA
Pico de potência Apenas baterias
± 6 kVA
± 10 kVA
Armazenagem e inversão
Victron Quattro
24/3000
24/5000
BatteryProtect
100A
220A
Bateria de serviço
2 x 220 Ah 12 V
ou 4 x 165 Ah 12V AGM
4 x 220 Ah 12 V AGM
ou 25,6 V/200 Ah Lítio
BatteryCombiner
Cyrix 120 A (depende do alternador)
2 x Cyrix 120 A (depende do alternador)
Ou para lítio: 2x Buck-Boost 100 A (/24 V = 50 A) quando o alterador for à Prova de Lítio ou regular A para zona segura de Alternador Normal.
Geração
Alternador
2x 80 A (24 V)
2x 80 A (24 V)
Potência nominal do cais 230 V
16 A
1X16 A
ou 1x25 A
Isolador Galvânico
16 A (embarcações não metálicas)
Ou transformador de isolamento 3600 W (embarcações metálicas ou sistemas maiores)
16 A ou 32 A (embarcações não metálicas)
Ou transformador de isolamento 3600 W ou 7000 W (embarcações metálicas ou sistemas maiores)
Gerador
5 kVa
Não essencial para este perfil
5 kVa
Solar
± 640 W
± 640 W
Idealmente superior, se possível
Carregador solar
(Smart) MPPT 100/35
Mínimo
Regular de acordo com a tensão do painel combinado
Monitorização
Monitor de Bateria
BMV-712 Smart
BMV-712 Smart
Extensões
Extensões disponíveis
Cerbo GX e GX Touch 50
Cerbo GX e GX Touch 50
Módulo GX GSM
Módulo GX GSM
Mostrar lista completa

Aparentemente o seu navegador não é compatível com a tecnologia mais recente para visualizar esta secção adequadamente. Considere a utilização de um navegador mais recente.

Mergulhe no mundo da energia marítima

Encontrar o distribuidor local

A nossa rede global consolidada de Profissionais Victron quer ajudá-lo a encontrar uma solução ótima para o seu desafio.

Conte com a nossa assistência global

A Victron considera essencial que os clientes recebam o serviço e a assistência de uma forma rápida e competente. É por isto que a nossa rede global de Profissionais Victron integra o nível mais elevado de know-how técnico e assumiu o compromisso de fazer as reparações o mais rápido possível.

Assim pode começar ou continuar a viagem, independentemente do seu destino.